Portraits of Authors.Dostoyevsky

 

Italian text

Fyodor Michkailovic Dostoyevsky

Uno dei protagonisti della letteratura russa dell’ Ottocento e della letteratura mondiale, autore di cinque o sei romanzi che sono considerati capisaldi di tutta  la letteratura e di numerosi racconti, Ivan Dostov nasce in un ospedale di Mosca da una famiglia della piccola nobiltà decaduta. Il  padre Michael  esercita la professione di medico militare  e cura i suoi numerosi affari con astuzia, ha un brutto carattere al contrario della madre che viene da una famiglia di ricchi borghesi commercianti , ed ha un carattere al contrario  mite ed è appassionata di arte, musica e letteratura, ama leggere a Feodor  la Bibbia e certe vecchie storie della vecchia Russia. Feodor  è il secondo  figlio dopo  Michael che diverrà medico come il padre e collaboratore letterario di Fyodor.

I Dostoyevsky erano originari  dalla  piccola nobiltà lituana, e il nonno era un prete ortodosso. Dal suo sangue Fyodor   eredita una certa tendenza al misticismo cristiano e un certo stupore  religioso, oltre una morbosa sensibilità verso il dolore e le sofferenze. Il padre Mickhail, il dottor Mickhail,  curava i poveri in ospedale, ma aveva un carattere difficile e collerico. Era riuscito ad ottenere il riconoscimento della sua antica nobiltà lituana ed aveva ottenuto della terra, una proprietà vicino Mosca, dove Fyodor trascorse l’ infanzia e l’ adolescenza. Qui Fyodor vive  a contatto con i servi, i contadini che il padre strapazza e le bambinaie che lo introducono  nel mondo fatato della vecchia Russia. E’un bambino sensibile e malato,  affascinato   dalle storie del sovrannaturale e grande lettore  di  romanzi gotici. La madre lo ha abituato a leggere la Bibbia. Fyodor parla con i malati che giungono nella tenuta per farsi  vistare e curare, impara così la sofferenza e le crudeltà. Ora sa leggere libri non solo in russo, a anche in inglese, tedesco e francese, ed ha una vera passione per il Don Chisciotte di Cervantes. Legge Goethe, Schiller, le storie gotiche della Radcliffe, si accosta ai romanzi di Dickens, e a i romanzi del francese Eugene Sue. Comincia ad appassionarsi ai temi sociali della Russia, al problema dei contadini e alle piaghe sociali che affliggono le grandi città come Mosca e Pietroburgo e i piccoli centri rurali. Guarda con una certa diffidenza la francesizzazione  della cultura russa, e sogna di dare una immagine tutta russa alla cultura del suo paese. Dostoyevsky  è piccolo di statura, 1,62 o 1,63, e di costituzione gracile, presto si manifesterà la malattia che lo affliggerà per tutta la vita, l’ epilessia. E’ molto attaccato alla madre e la sua morte nel 1837 sarà il più grave colpo della sua vita, ne risentirà tanto da ammalarsi  gravemente alla gola e per il resto dell’esistenza  parlerà in modo stentato. Passeranno  solo due anni e il dottor Mickhail muore nella sua tenuta forse di attacco apoplettico, ma si parla anche di un delitto dei contadini e dei servi strapazzati malamente, Ma di questo vengono assolti in un processo. Questa triste esperienza che raggiunge Fyodor a San Pietroburgo dove è andato a studiare ingegneria militare presso  l’ accademia militare della città, la ritroviamo nel romanzo I Fratelli Karamazov…….

 

 

 

English text

“Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky[note] (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; IPA: [ˈfʲodər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ dəstɐˈjefskʲɪj] ( listen); 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881[note]), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and essayist. Dostoyevsky’s literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political, social and spiritual context of 19th-century Russia. Although Dostoyevsky began writing in the mid-1840s, his most memorable works – including Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov – are from his later years. Altogether he wrote eleven novels, three novellas, seventeen short novels, and three essays, and has been judged by many literary critics to be one of the greatest and most prominent psychologists in world literature.[1]

 Dostoyevsky was born in the Mariinsky hospital in Moscow, Russia. He was introduced to literature at an early age – through fairy tales and legends, but also through books by English, French, German and Russian authors. His mother’s sudden death in 1837, when he was in his early teens, devastated him. Around that time, he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute. After graduating, he worked as an engineer and briefly enjoyed a liberal lifestyle. He soon began translating books to earn extra money. In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which allowed him to join St Petersburg’s literary circles. In 1849 he was arrested for his involvement with the Petrashevsky Circle – a secret society of liberal utopians as well as a literary discussion group. He and other members were condemned to death, but the penalty proved to be a mock execution and the sentence was commuted to four years’ hard labour in Siberia. After his release, Dostoyevsky was forced to serve as a soldier, but was discharged from the military due to his ill health.

 In the following years Dostoyevsky worked as a journalist, publishing and editing several magazines of his own and later a serial, A Writer’s Diary. He began travelling around western Europe, and developed a gambling addiction which led to financial hardship and an embarrassing period of begging for money. Adding to his woes, he suffered from epilepsy throughout his adult life. But through his indefatigable energy and the sheer volume of his work, he eventually became one of the most widely read and renowned Russian writers. His books have been translated into more than 170 languages and have sold around 15 million copies.[2] Dostoyevsky has influenced a multitude of writers of varying genres, from Anton Chekhov and James Joyce to Ernest Hemingway and Jean-Paul Sartre, among others.” Wikipedia.en

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fyodor_Dostoyevsky

Cities of FK.r San Pietroburgo

http://www.fantastikalbi.it/?page_id=4142

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